Quadratus of Athens (died c. AD 129) was a disciple of the apostles, and one of the earliest Christian apologists. He assumed leadership of the church in Athens after the martyrdom of his predecessor, Publius, and is best known for presenting a rational defense of Christianity to the Roman Emperor Hadrian, for which he is […]
Category: Church History
Papias of Hierapolis
Papias of Hierapolis (c. AD 60-130) was the bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia (present day Turkey) during the early part of the second century. A disciple of the apostle John and a companion of Polycarp, Papias is recognized as one of the Apostolic Fathers, a group of early church leaders directly connected with the apostles. […]
Irenaeus of Lyons
Irenaeus was the bishop of Lugdunum (Lyons) and was one of the leading theologians of the 2nd century (AD 103-202). He was a student under Polycarp, who was a Christian bishop of Smyrna. Eventually, he moved to Rome and studied under Justin Martyr, who was an early Christian apologist. According to early church historian Eusebius, […]
Athenagoras of Athens
Athenagoras was a noteworthy apologist from the Athenian Church who wrote in the late second century A.D. He is especially important to Christian theology because his works disclose a belief in two doctrines that have been questioned throughout the development of the Christian Church. He details the belief in one God in three distinct persons—the […]
Ignatius of Antioch
Ignatius of Antioch was one of the early church fathers. He grew up well educated in church doctrine because he was a disciple of the apostle John and Polycarp, the bishop of Smyrna. Eventually, he became the second bishop of Antioch. In his role as bishop, he was a defender of orthodoxy, and he became […]
Polycarp (c. AD 69-155) was the bishop of Smyrna (present day Izmir, Turkey) during the early part of the second century. A disciple of the apostle John, Polycarp is recognized as one of the Apostolic Fathers, a group of early church leaders directly connected with the apostles, who played a prominent role in preserving the […]
How Did the Apostle Paul Die?
The Bible contains many details of Paul’s life, both in the book of Acts and in his own letters, but only hints about his death are included. For that reason, we cannot be sure about the details, but putting biblical clues together with writings from the early church, it appears that he died a martyr’s […]
Was Peter the First Pope?
There is much controversy concerning whether Peter was the first pope. This question highlights how beliefs differ between the Roman Catholic Church and churches of the Reformation. Church bodies that broke away from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation, and after, deny the authority of the pope based on Scripture. So the answer based […]
Justin Martyr (c. AD 100–165)
Justin Martyr (c. AD 100-165) was an early Christian apologist, philosopher, and teacher. Born in Samaria and raised as a pagan, Justin was acquainted with both Jewish and Roman culture. Justin later moved to Ephesus, where he studied Stoic and Platonic philosophy. Justin was first introduced to Christianity when he encountered an old man who […]
How Did the Apostle Peter Die?
Although the Bible does not tell us how the apostle Peter died, there is tradition that tells us that Peter likely died by crucifixion during the reign of Nero in about AD 64. When considering the martyrs, it is perhaps more edifying to know why they died rather than how. They died to follow their […]